Understanding Electrical Safety in Today’s Changing Landscape

Being able to identify electrical hazards and having tools, safety procedures and instructions available to mitigate risk is essential to ensuring safety.

 

It’s important to have a workforce that understands how keeping up with the times is paramount to staying safe in the workplace. Much can said about the importance of creating an electrically-safe workplace, but it is the responsibility of any employer to provide a safe environment, free of hazards to its employees.

In 2015, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) created an accreditation, the “Certified Electrical Safety Worker (CESW)” certification program, which was based on the most current edition of NFPA 70E, the Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. The program ensures that electricians have the knowledge, training and experience to perform their jobs at the highest, safest level possible. Obviously, one key to safety during times of change is keeping aligned with consensus standards, which the NEC and NFPA updates every three years. Below are changes any plant might encounter and thus has a need to be prepared for.

VeriSafe – Absence of Voltage Tester

Changes in Standards
As safety standards evolve, so too must the company and its workforce. The latest release of the NFPA 70E-2018, includes updates that are essential for the company and its employees to understand. When NFPA 70E released its 2018 update, a new exception was included that allows Absence of Voltage Testers (AVTs) listed to UL 1436 to be used to verify the absence of voltage instead of a handheld voltmeter. Changes to consensus standards can take safety at a facility from good to great.

Changes in the Plant
When business grows, the facility grows. New machines are added, the electrical capacity needs grow, and thus an increased need for overall, plant-wide electrical safety grows. Sometimes, there can be an overcrowding in electrical rooms and production areas with added equipment. Other times, challenges are created when multiple suppliers of equipment create anomalies. While codes and standards evolve, and as equipment is added, there can be these compatibility issues. Standardizing processes and procedures can help minimize or prevent human error. Panduit provides solutions for the electrical infrastructure that can help bridge multiple equipment manufacturers or areas of equipment as additions take place. The VeriSafe Absence of Voltage Tester is compatible across many equipment types and manufacturers, provided the specifications have been met.

Changes in Plant Operations and Performance 
The rise in automation in plants today is proof that the robots are here. The qualified electrical worker meets all of the training requirements set by NFPA 70E and OSHA, and as a general rule, each qualified electrical worker may need several days of training each year to maintain the level of skill. It may be a good idea to plan for that training over a three-year period – which helps to ensure that the qualification process continues to track changing requirements. It’s possible that effective training may be something that is repeated in different formats periodically in order to keep if fresh and top-of-mind. This may toggle between classroom instruction, hands-on skills demonstration and audits.

New equipment brings new types of hazards and risks. Being able to identify these hazards and having tools, safety procedures and instructions available to mitigate risk is essential to ensuring safety. Perhaps even more game-changing than automation is the availability of connectivity and networking on the plant floor. This allows safety procedures to become more connected and integrated into workflow with the ability to track and log tasks, as well as access to video for training and recording purposes.

Why Your Electrical Infrastructure is Too Important Not to Be a Maintenance Priority

The electrical infrastructure of a building, including distribution and controls, is the heart of any facility.

 

Too often, electrical systems aren’t always given the maintenance priority they might deserve. Today, we understand the importance of why the electrical infrastructure is critical to doing business and why plant safety can be enhanced with a little thought and planning.

For the majority of electrical work that happens in a facility, including scheduled maintenance, de-energizing the system is the fundamental requirement for safety. The electrical infrastructure of a building, including distribution and controls, is the heart of any facility. Without a reliable source of electricity, production would not be possible. So, what can be done to make electrical system maintenance a priority?

Schedule regularly, avoid spontaneity.
Even with the critical nature of electrical equipment, regularly scheduled maintenance needs to be a primary focus. Facility managers don’t often think about maintenance until a disruption, like an equipment failure, occurs within the system.

Neglecting regular maintenance of electrical equipment, especially over a long period of time, may lead to a disruption in facility operations and possibly a damaging system failure or an incident. Reliable equipment will increase safety and decrease property risks.

Don’t overlook the obvious.
Electrical equipment, especially what modern facilities are installing today, is well-designed, it’s safe to operate and it generally has a long service life. By nature, electrical systems are usually hidden from sight.

Thus, when it’s out of sight, it’s out of mind – awareness may not be raised as long as lights turn on and everything operates as it normally would. Even new equipment requires a proactive maintenance and service program and then it needs to be inspected to ensure it is properly installed, functioning and can be well maintained.

The Electrical System Can’t Always Speak for Itself.
Though sensors and condition-based monitoring are becoming more and more common, particularly thermal monitoring of critical electrical infrastructure, a fair amount of electrical equipment in use today still can’t warn us when a failure is imminent.

It could be less disruptive to operations if workers could identify equipment that is about to fail, before the failure occurs, so proper steps could be taken to prevent or minimize the downtime impact to people, processes, equipment and operations.

Regular maintenance is required to ensure that equipment can be operated as expected. For example, contacts that are not regularly exercised have a tendency to stick, or not open at all, leading to longer clearing times than expected.

Plan for maintenance.
While de-energizing equipment is a fundamental requirement for electrical safety, de-energizing by its nature is disruptive to facility operations. Thus, it is best to anticipate and plan for maintenance.

A conscious plan for maintenance is far financially advantageous to the other option, when unplanned maintenance occurs when least expected. It also may be helpful knowing that a facility-wide shutdown is happening, so steps can be taken to ensure operational disruptions will be minimized.

Maintenance shutdowns have a cost and require planning, so it’s important to anticipate the need and even budget appropriately. If the facility does not have trained and qualified electrical workers to perform the system maintenance, then many qualified service companies exist and can offer these services.

Planned maintenance has the distinct advantage of making sure that experts can be present. Some equipment manufacturers can even be onsite to assist customers with large PM programs when maintenance is scheduled in advance and not unplanned.

From Problem to Solution: NFPA 70E and the VeriSafe Absence of Voltage Tester

The VeriSafe – Absence of Voltage Tester (AVT) from Panduit supports compliance in the lockout/tagout process described in NFPA 70E.

 

Electrical workers must comply with safety regulations that require a voltage verification test before servicing electrical equipment. NFPA 70E, the Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, addresses best practices for protecting employees from electrical hazards through the use of safety programs, hazard and risk identification, training, and procedures.

One of the best ways to protect workers is to isolate the electrical supply, follow lockout and tagout procedures, and verify the equipment is de-energized before any electrical work is performed. Until now, this process has been complex and time-consuming, fraught with possibilities for human error and potential exposure to hazards.

The verification step often puts electrical workers at risk for exposure to electrical hazards while testing a handheld tester on a known voltage source, testing for absence of voltage phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground inside the equipment, and re-testing the tester to ensure it is still functioning properly.

Until these steps have been completed, it is best to assume the equipment may be energized and take all necessary precautions including use of adequate personal protective equipment.

In the 2018 edition of NFPA 70E, a new exception was included in Article 120.5(7) that offers an alternative to the traditional hand-held testers method used to verify the absence of voltage: the option to use a permanently mounted device.

The permanently mounted test device can be used to test the conductors and circuit parts at the point of work before the equipment is accessed preventing exposure to electrical hazards. These permanently mounted devices must be installed at the point of work in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions, listed and labeled for the purpose of verifying the absence of voltage, and satisfy additional requirements outlined in the standard.

The permanently mounted test device is different from the test portal interface that is sometimes used with a handheld voltage tester. Although the test portals reduce exposure when verifying the absence of voltage, this process– working with hand tools via a portal – does not meet the requirements of the new Exception 1 in 120.5(7) because:

  • It is not listed for the purpose of verifying the absence of voltage
  • There is no way to confirm that the probes of the tester are actually in direct contact with the electrical conductors inside the enclosure at the time of the test
  • They bring hazardous voltage to the door

An example of a permanently mounted device that does meet the requirements of NPFA 70E is the absence of voltage tester (AVT).

The VeriSafe Absence of Voltage Tester from Panduit is specifically designed to verify the absence of voltage and fully complies with the new NFPA 70E standard. This ultimately simplifies the testing process and reduces risk for the qualified worker performing electrical work.

Automating this process with the VeriSafe AVT:

  • Reduces testing procedure time and complexity
  • Reduces the risk of exposure to electrical hazards
  • Supports compliance in the lockout/tagout process described in NFPA 70E

A facility’s electrical infrastructure is a top priority. With more than 60 years of infrastructure expertise, Panduit is committed to developing innovative solutions to help companies achieve their operational goals, reduce risk, and increase electrical safety.

Learn more about the VeriSafe - Absence of Voltage Tester here: www.panduit.com/verisafe

How Electrical Safety Technology Advancements Move From Ideas to Implementation

The VeriSafe AVT is a permanently-mounted test device designed to verify that a circuit is de-energized prior to opening an electrical enclosure.

The VeriSafe™ Absence of Voltage Tester (AVT) from Panduit simplifies the testing process by automating the voltage verification process.

 

When servicing electrical equipment, OSHA and the NFPA 70E Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace both direct these qualified electrical workers to de-energize all live parts to which an employee may be exposed.

Thus, the worker is required perform a voltage verification test to validate the absence of voltage. This is a complex testing process that includes a number of stages that can be cumbersome and time-consuming when using hand-held portable test instruments.

Before the testing even beings, it’s important for the worker to think ahead and not be forced to stop work to fetch other tools or testers that might throw their focus and contribute to an electrical accident.

Electrical safety, in terms of tools, has been advancing for decades. Today, we have infrared thermometers, cameras, and windows as well as laser distance meters and non-contact voltage detectors.

Early non-contact tools, like low-voltage, proximity testers were (and still are) good for a first test for voltage, but they required follow up with a direct-contact meter.

In general, proximity testers are flawed in that they may not work in all situations, as their readings are thrown off by a number of specific circumstances.

Solenoid testers used to be a popular tool of choice, but when voltage drops below 90 volts, the tool wasn’t reliable in indicating that voltage is present.

Some solenoid units with indicator lights stop lighting up at about 30 volts, some are prone to wear and scarring leaving inabilities to see voltage and today, solenoid testers aren’t fused and don’t comply with CAT safety rating requirements.

After the solenoid tester came the multimeter, which is a good tool for making accurate contact measurements to identify live circuits. However, one of the most common mistakes workers make when using a multimeter is turning it to the wrong function (amps instead of volts).

Verifying the operation of the voltage tester itself is also a task that needs to be performed.

Before beginning the absence of voltage test, it’s important to check the test instrument to ensure it is working properly – this is known as the  “live-dead-live” test, which is mandated by OSHA and is also required by the NFPA 70E when voltage is above 50 volts. The live-dead-live requirement was written into 70E in the 2009 update.

The VeriSafe™ Absence of Voltage Tester (AVT) from Panduit simplifies the testing process by automating the voltage verification process.

Voltage indicators are tools that can warn of hazardous voltage but cannot be used to confirm if the equipment is de-energized. The VeriSafe AVT is a permanently-mounted test device designed to verify that a circuit is de-energized prior to opening an electrical enclosure.

The idea for VeriSafe came as a product of Prevention through Design. In concept, it was designed to eliminate or avoid the electrical hazard.

With VeriSafe, the absence of voltage test is initiated with the push of a button; No additional tools required. The simplified process of automating for voltage verification is here.

More facilities are implementing advanced safety-first systems that remove doubt, reduce the chances of human error and boost worker productivity.

Just as the modern facility has advanced, so too has test technology that verifies the absence of voltage.

Learn more about Panduit absence of voltage testers here: https://www.panduit.com/en/products/safety-security/active-safety-devices/absence-of-voltage-testers.html

Ten Top Electrical Hazards and Panduit Solutions

Panduit innovates the products that protect people, places and things

Here are 10 of the most common causes of electrical death and injury.

The world knows a lot about electricity. Humankind knows how it’s made, how to use it, and humans even have a rudimentary understanding of how to store it.

And while experts understand electricity, they also know to respect it.

Because even before Ben Franklin inexplicably survived his interaction with a key, a kite, and a bolt of lightning, humans have known electricity is dangerous.

What follows are ten of the most common causes of electrical death and injury. The reader should take heed; each of these represents a preventable mishap.

Much like poor or inadequate communication, or mislabeled wires, these hazards are rooted in human behavior. In fact, another type of article could simply list “human error” as a single major cause of electrical mishaps.

There can be accidents wherever there are humans and electricity; here are some of the most dangerous situations.

  1. Overhead power lines

In the United States, nearly 46 percent of fatal workplace electrical mishaps are caused by contact with overhead wires.

Conversely, overhead wires are involved with only two percent of non-fatal mishaps. Those statistics are a grim reminder of the danger posed by overhead power lines; they pose an exceptional danger to the life of anyone who comes in contact with one.

  1. Lockout/Tagout Failure

Lockout/Tagout literally means to lockout circuits during construction and other electrical work. And the process works well; OSHA estimates that nearly 50,000 injuries2 are prevented every year by using proper procedures.

Solutions such as Panduit’s full line of lockout/tagout equipment make it easier to comply with safety procedures. Check out the line here.

  1. Damaged tools and equipment

Damaged equipment and faulty tools cause 37 percent3 of non-fatal workplace electrical mishaps. Whether it’s an old electric hand tool, one that’s been dropped, by the time it starts smoking, it’s been dangerous for a long time. Regular checks, maintenance, and awareness are critical to keeping tools safe in the workplace.

  1. Overloaded circuits

The National Fire Protection Association (U.S.) estimates that more than $1.4 billion4 in property damage is caused by overloaded circuits in homes every year.

Commercial statistics are difficult to come by, but what’s certain is that overloaded circuits cause an enormous amount of damage to commercial and residential property all across the globe. It’s a problem that’s easily solved by accurate labeling.

Panduit labeling solutions make this safety step quick, easy, and a must-have for any commercial application.

  1. Damaged insulation

Mice chew on wires. So do squirrels. But even without a plastic-munching rodent problem, wires can be damaged when they rub on other surfaces.

Repeated wear on the wires can break the insulation, allowing electric current to escape. Much of this abrasion can be eliminated with a good pest control program and using abrasion protection products like these.

  1. Inadequate wiring and terminations

Non-home structure fires involving electrical failure or malfunction accounted for an estimated annual average of 12 civilian deaths5, 210 civilian injuries, and $614 million each year from 2010-2014. Some of that damage and loss of life can be prevented simply by terminating wires correctly. Learn how here.

  1. Exposed electrical parts

Inadequate labeling, poor equipment condition, and even user error can cause electrical parts to be exposed, posing a significant risk to safety.

Clear communication and labeling, along with using high-quality products at every turn is a critical step to reducing the thousands of injuries caused every year by exposed electrical parts.

  1. Improper grounding

Improper grounding is the #1 electrical violation according to OSHA. It’s often overlooked and poorly understood. The Panduit line of grounding solutions makes grounding a simpler task with a complete line of tools and products.

  1. Qualification of the “qualified” electrical worker

NFPA 70E and OSHA regulations instruct that electrical circuits or equipment with at last 50 volts of electricity must be covered, protected, or made inaccessible to everyone except “qualified electrical workers.”

That worker is considered “qualified” when they have attained the training and experience to be familiar with the construction and operation of the equipment, along with any hazards. But that vague definition allows for a huge range of experience. Only with an ongoing safety program can any organization determine its workers are “qualified.”

  1. Verification for Absence of Voltage

Test lights are decades old technology. But meeting the challenges of today’s regulations and expectations means using a tool that’s permanently installed, like Panduit’s VeriSafe.

VeriSafe minimizes risk by verifying the absence of voltage before equipment is accessed, making it easier for qualified electrical workers to identify an electrically safe environment in a fraction of the time of hand-held portable test instruments. Learn more about VeriSafe, and how you can meet the NFPA 70E requirements here.

 

1 (Source: Brenner B, Cawley JC (2009). Occupational Electrical Injury and Fatality Trends: 1992-2007. EHS Today. Available at: http://ehstoday.com/construction/news/occupational-electrical-injury-3991. Accessed 01/19/2018, via https://www.nfpa.org/News-and-Research/Fire-statistics-and-reports/Research-reports/Electrical-safety/Occupational-Injuries-from-Electrical-Shock-and-Arc-Flash-Events accessed 1/18/2018)
2 (Source: EFSI.org,  https://www.esfi.org/resource/lockout-tagout-your-life-depends-on-it-544 accessed 2/12/18)
3 (source: https://www.nfpa.org/News-and-Research/Fire-statistics-and-reports/Research-reports/Electrical-safety/Occupational-Injuries-from-Electrical-Shock-and-Arc-Flash-Events accessed 1/18/2018)
4,5 (source: NFPA fact sheet, accessed here: https://www.nfpa.org/News-and-Research/Fire-statistics-and-reports/Fire-statistics/Fire-causes/Electrical-and-consumer-electronics/Electrical accessed 1/25/18)
6 (source: Office of Compliance, Congressional Accountability, fact sheet. https://www.compliance.gov/sites/default/files/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Exposed-Energized-Wiring-Fast-Fact-Feburary-2010.pdf accessed 1/25/18)

 

3 Ways Edge Computing Stimulates IoT Technology Capabilities

3 Ways Edge Computing Enriches IoT Technology

There are three ways edge computing enhances IoT deployments. These areas are key to increasing data gathering capabilities in a real-time world.

For IoT deployments, going to the edge may be the best choice when it comes to helping businesses deploy IoT technology across their network infrastructures.

Panduit’s white paper, “Edge Computing: Behind the Scenes of IoT,” explains the difference between the cloud and edge computing and three ways the edge can help IoT technology deployments.

It also discusses the following key areas for consideration when deploying edge computing: real-time requirements, environmental conditions, space limitations, and security.

Edge Computing

Edge computing is the opposite of cloud computing. With edge computing, the compute, storage, and application resources are located close to the user of the data, or the source of the data.

This is in contrast to a cloud deployment where those resources are in some distant data center owned by the cloud provider.

Although edge computing may appear to be a new concept, it is just the computing pendulum swinging to one side of the computing continuum.

Computing started with the advent of mainframes in the late 1950s. Mainframes are an example of centralized computing; they were too large and expensive for one to be on every user’s desk.

In the late 1960s, minicomputers appeared, which moved compute power away from centralized control and into research labs where they controlled experiments, the factory floor for process control, and many other use cases.

The pendulum moved all the way to the distributed side with the arrival of the PC in the mid-1980s. With the PC, individuals had computing power at their fingertips.

The computing pendulum swings back and forth, and today, it is swinging towards edge computing, which puts the processing and storage resources closer to where they are used and needed.

Why Edge Computing for IoT?

IoT deployments can benefit from edge computing in three ways:

  1. Reduced Network Latency

The latency in an IoT deployment is the amount of time between when an IoT sensor starts sending data and when an action is taken on the data.

Several factors impact network latency: The propagation delay through the physical media of the network; the amount of time it takes to route data through the networking equipment (switches, routers, servers, etc.); and the amount of time it takes to process the data. Implementing edge computing for IoT offers a reduction in network latency and improves real-time response.

  1. Reduced Network Jitter

The jitter in a network is the variation of latency over time. Some real-time IoT applications may not be tolerant of network jitter, if that jitter causes the latency to lengthen such that it prevents the system to act in the required time frame.

  1. Enhanced Security

Edge computing offers the opportunity to provide a more secure environment regardless of how one would deploy: co-location or directly owning the equipment.

Co-location facilities are physically secure locations. If one owns the edge computing equipment, it can be in the factory where the IoT sensors are located or in another company-owned facility.

To learn more about edge computing and why it is important for IoT, download Panduit’s “Edge Computing: Behind the Scenes of IoT”  white paper – or subscribe to our blog to access all the papers in our IoT “101” white paper series.

4 Factors Impacting IIoT Technology Right Now

Bandwidth has a major impact on IIoT technology and your IoT network – it’s one of four requirements that have enabled IIoT applications to flourish.

4 Factors Impacting IIoT Technology

There are four factors that are currently contributing to the growth of IIoT technology. Bandwidth is an underlying component that affects this growth.

Panduit’s white paper, “The Ubiquity of Bandwidth” discusses four reasons IIoT is trending now and how bandwidth plays an integral role in IT/OT data gathering and analytics.

Why is IIoT Happening Now?

What has occurred to propel the IIoT into one of the most popular concepts in IT/OT?

1. Smartphone/Tablet — The widespread adoption of smartphones and tablets has made us comfortable with small devices that provide information and interact with us.

2. The Internet — The Internet, or more specifically, the World Wide Web, is an intricate part of our lives; it is no longer a novelty. We have become accustomed to having our devices access vast amounts of data or upload our personal data to the cloud.

3. Cost — The cost of computing and communications has dropped to a level that makes IoT affordable.

4. Bandwidth — We are used to the increasing speeds of our communication networks but there is another aspect of communications-bandwidth is everywhere.

The Ubiquity of Bandwidth

At the dawn of the computer era, there was only one way to connect devices: wires. Times have changed.

Today, network connections can take many forms: DSL, cable TV plant (FTTx, cable modem), wired Ethernet, Fibre Channel, or Industrial Ethernet for the factory floor.

More impressive is the number of ways to connect wirelessly including Bluetooth, LTE, 5G, satellite, ZigBee, and Wi-Fi.

We now take these connections for granted. Today’s smartphone seamlessly switches between the cellular data network and Wi-Fi.

A decade ago, it would have been unthinkable to see passengers on a commuter train passing the time by streaming their favorite TV program to their hand-held device.

Another aspect of today’s communications links is that they are always on— ever-present. Having to wait for the dial-up modems to train themselves and synchronize is ancient history.

Bandwidth is everywhere. It is this ubiquity of bandwidth that is a necessary component for making the IoT possible.

To learn more about how bandwidth affects your IIoT network, download Panduit’s “The Ubiquity of Bandwidth” white paper – or subscribe to our blog to access all the papers in our IoT “101” white paper series.

 

Which Optical Fiber Should You Use: OM4+ or OM5 Fiber?

Since the TIA ratified the specification for OM5, a wideband multimode optical fiber (WB-MMF), customers that are thinking about upgrading their existing infrastructure, or building out new, are asking a question: Should they deploy OM5 fiber?

I’ll get to the answer in a bit.  First, let’s talk about what OM5 is.

OM5 is essentially an OM4 fiber that has an additional bandwidth specification at 953nm.  Both OM4 and OM5 have bandwidths specified as 4,700MHz•km at 850nm, and OM5 has a bandwidth specification of 2,450MHz•km at 953nm.  OM4 does not have a bandwidth specified at 953nm.

OM5 was designed to be used with optical modules that employ Shortwave Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SWDM).  These new SWDM modules use four wavelengths that span from 850nm through 953nm, to implement 100Gbps links.

Each wavelength is modulated at 25Gbps and by multiplexing them together, one attains 100Gbps.  See figure 1.  Given what wavelengths are used in SWDM optical modules, it is easy to see why the OM5 standard was developed.

OM5 signature core fiber

OM5 was designed to be used with optical modules that employ Shortwave Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Figure 1 – Implementing SWDM

Back to the question.

You only need to consider using OM5 if you plan on deploying 100Gbps links using SWDM optical modules AND need to reach out past 100m.

The interest in using SWDM optical modules is that they allow deploying a 100Gbps link over duplex MMFs, rather than taking up eight parallel fibers required when using 100GBASE-SR4.  SWDM allows reusing the existing duplex fiber infrastructure.

However, there are many more ideal alternatives for deploying 100Gbps over duplex fibers, such as 100G BiDi, or using PAM4 modulation to achieve the higher data rate.

The other alternatives do not suffer from SWDM’s shortcomings, such as higher cost, higher operating temperatures, and the inability to support breakout applications.  If you still are thinking about using SWDM 100G optical modules, and the reach is under 100m, then one would be better off using standard OM3 or OM4, as it is less expensive than OM5.

If extended reach is needed, say for 40G BiDi, the better alternative to OM5 fiber would be our OM4 Signature Core MMF.  Our OM4 Signature Core MMF can reach out to 200m using 40G BiDi, while OM5 will only reach out to 150m, the same as OM4.

That is because at the wavelengths used by BiDi modules, OM5 fiber is no better than OM4.  In fact, OM4 Signature Core has outperformed standard OM5 fiber in several head-to-head competitions conducted at end-user sites.

If the decision is to use 100G SWDM modules AND you need to reach longer than 150m, the better fiber to use would be our OM5 Signature Core MMF.  Our OM5 Signature Core MMF uses the same reach-enhancing technology as our OM4 Signature Core, so you can take advantage of reaches greater than the standard by 20%.

For an in-depth explanation on how our OM4 Signature Core and OM5 Signature Core MMFs are able to achieve extended distances, please visit our Signature Core landing page, where you will find everything you need to know about Signature Core MMFs.

Better yet, view the recorded webinar, Where Do We Go From Here? A Fork in the Road for Multimode Fiber, presented by Robert Reid, our senior technical manager with our Data Center business unit.  In the webinar, not only does Robert talk about our Signature Core MMF, but also OM5, SWDM, and other topics surrounding multimode optical fiber and modules.

Finally, you can download our ebook for a comparison of the various fiber type.

3 Technology Advances Drive IIoT — and its Demand for Real-Time Data

 

Real-Time Data White Paper

What is the impact on the enterprise data center when it tries to process real-time data from IIoT devices?

Deploying IIoT generates data that needs to be collected, analyzed, and acted on in real time.

What exactly is real time and how does it affect your network’s infrastructure?

Panduit’s latest white paper, “What is the Impact of Real-Time Data?”  explains the relationship between process control and real-time data.

What is Real Time?

The definition varies, but generally, a real-time system is one that provides a smooth, seamless user experience.

This is certainly the case when watching HDTV or listening to streaming music. The video frames and audio samples arrive quickly enough and at the right time.

This allows the viewer or listener to integrate them into a smooth experience rather than discrete samples.

This definition also applies to digital control systems implemented on the factory floor or a flight control system. In those applications, if the digital control system does not respond fast enough, bad things can happen.

Process Control is Generating Real-Time Data

End users and manufacturers of IIoT technology are using three concurrent technological advances to deploy IIoT: sensors, Moore’s Law, and the ubiquity of bandwidth.

Without them, the IIoT and the linkage of the factory floor to the enterprise data center would not be possible.

  1. Sensors—Sensors like microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers, gyroscopes, and inertial measurement units (IMU), have become small enough with a reduced cost, making wide deployment practical.
  2. Moore’s Law—Doubling the number of transistors in an integrated circuit every two years has resulted in small, cheap CPUs and memories.  The Raspberry Pi single board computer is an example.
  3. The Ubiquity of Bandwidth—IIoT devices that gather data need to send that data upstream for analysis. The ability to connect to a network is available everywhere. There is a wide range of ways IIoT devices can connect to the network, for example, copper or fiber optic cabling, Wi-Fi, ZigBee, and cellular, to name a few.

Deploying IIoT devices generates large amounts of data that must be analyzed and acted upon in real time.

To learn more about the impact of real-time requirements on your network’s infrastructure, download Panduit’s “What is the Impact of Real-Time Data?  white paper – or subscribe to our blog to receive our complete 4-part series of IoT 101 white papers.

 

How Packet Loss Occurs In Network Infrastructure

Causes of Packet Loss

Packet loss reduces network throughput and adds to latency.

 

Packet loss impacts a network in two ways: it reduces throughput and adds to latency.

But why does packet loss occur in the first place?

The following excerpt from Panduit’s “What is the Impact of Packet Loss?” white paper focuses on the root causes of packet corruption and its prevention.

Corrupted packets can occur when they encounter a bit error as the packet moves from one end of the network to the other. Bit errors almost always occur in the lowest layer of a protocol stack, the physical layer. The job of the physical layer is to move information from one end of the network to the other.

Typically this information is represented by a stream of 0s and 1s. The physical layer does not assign any meaning to the stream of 0s and 1s because the upper layers handle that task.

Causes of Bit Errors

Copper Cabling/Wireless Connection: Outside interference such as lightning or other electrical noise can cause the bit error if the physical layer uses copper cabling or wireless connection.

Optical Networks: In optical networks, a bit error could occur if the optical module fails, causing it to have difficulty determining the stream of 0s and 1s. Other causes could be improperly terminated cabling, dirty fiber optic connectors, or water penetrating the cable.

Preventing Packet Loss

Proper Installation and Maintenance of the Network:
When installing RJ45 jacks, you may untwist the copper pairs more than needed. This could unbalance the pair, allowing electromagnetic interference (EMI) to impact link performance. Cleaning the end-face of fiber optic connectors is always important, but even more so at higher network speeds.

Proper grounding and bonding eliminate differing ground potentials between different pieces of networking equipment. These are examples that impact the receiver’s ability to distinguish the transmitted bit sequence that leads to corrupted packets.

Media Type: Media type, for example, copper or fiber, should also be considered. CAT6A unshielded twisted pair copper cabling is ideal for new installations, as it provides the best performance for most applications without the added expense of shielded cable. For harsh environments where EMI is present, you may need to install shielded copper cable or fiber cabling, which are immune to EMI.

To learn more about how you can prevent good packets from going bad, download Panduit’s “What is the Impact of Packet Loss” white paper – or subscribe to our blog to receive our complete 4-part series of IoT 101 white papers.